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[75] As of November 2010 the IRB recorded 118 unions in its membership, either full members or associate member countries. [111] Rugby union was introduced to Japan in 1899 by Ginnosuke Tanaka a student of Trinity Hall, Cambridge and Edward Bramwell Clarke, who studied at Corpus Christi College, Cambridge. [180] It is no longer played. The spread of rugby union as a global sport has its roots in the exporting of the game by British expatriates, military personnel and over-seas university students. [152] In 1908, Australasia defeated Great Britain, claiming the gold medal, the score being 32 points to three. The Gridiron codes, American football[173][174] and Canadian football,[175] are derived from early forms of rugby. A player may tackle an opposing player who has the ball by holding them while bringing them to ground. Six regional associations, which are members of the IRB, form the next level of administration; these are: SANZAR (South Africa, New Zealand and Australia Rugby) is a joint venture of the South African Rugby Union, the New Zealand Rugby Union and the Australian Rugby Union that operates Super Rugby and The Rugby Championship (formerly the Tri Nations before the entry of Argentina). [6] During this early period different schools used different rules, with former pupils from Rugby and Eton attempting to carry their preferred rules through to their universities. [190], Henri Rousseau – The Football Players (1908), Thomas Hughes 1857 novel Tom Brown’s Schooldays, set at Rugby School, includes a rugby football match, also portrayed in the 1940s film of the same name. Confusingly, in Canada, Canadian football has also frequently been referred to as “rugby football“,[175] and a number of national and provincial bodies were called “Rugby Football Unions” or “Rugby Unions”, such as the Ontario and Quebec Rugby Football Unions. [13][14], The first rugby football international took place on 27 March 1871, played between England and Scotland. [140] The reigning Six Nations champions are England, who won four of their games but lost 24–8 to Ireland, and therefore failing to get the grand slam.[141]. [69], The most basic items of equipment for a game of rugby union are the ball itself, a rugby shirt (also known as a “jersey”), rugby shorts, socks and boots. [143][144] The Tri Nations was initially played on a home and away basis with the three nations playing each other twice. By using LiveAbout, you accept our, 24 Champion Golfers Who Died Tragic, Early Deaths, The Origin, History, and Invention of Soccer, Royal Portrush, One of Ireland's Most Famous Golf Courses, Ryder Cup Results: Scores of Every Match Played, 1957 Ryder Cup: A Rare Win (in This Era) for GB&I, Curtis Cup: Biennial Golf Match Between USA-GB&I Teams, Why David Graham Is in the World Golf Hall of Fame. [47] There are several lines crossing it, notably the half way line and the “twenty two,” which is 22m from the goal line. Rugby union is played in over 100 countries across six continents and as of November 2010 118 unions were members of the IRB. [64] The latter, formerly known as touch judges, had the primary function of indicating when the ball had gone “touch”; their role has been expanded and they are now expected to assist the referee in a number of areas, such as watching for foul play and checking off-side lines. After the withdrawal of the British military from the area at the end of the decade, rugby in India faltered. All three teams brought new styles of play, fitness levels and tactics,[18] and were far more successful than critics had expected. [123], At least six countries have adopted rugby union as their de facto national sport; they are Fiji,[124] Georgia,[125] New Zealand,[126] Samoa,[127] Tonga[128] and Wales. The New Zealand Women’s team have won the last four World Cups (1998, 2002, 2006, 2010). The rich and proud history of the Northern Territory Rugby Union began in 1976. The spread of rugby union grew from the Home Nations of Great Britain and Ireland, and was absorbed by many of the countries associated with the British Empire. [72] Other protective items that are permitted include a head gear; thin (not more than 10 mm thick), non-rigid shoulder pads, and shin guards; which are worn underneath socks. The fly-half is crucial to a team’s game plan, orchestrating the teams performance. [159] As of 2009 over six hundred women’s internationals have been played by over forty different nations. This task was completed and approved by June 1871. Rugby union, often simply referred to as rugby, is a full contact team sport which originated in England in the early 19th century. [160], The first Women’s Rugby World Cup was held in Wales in 1991, and was won by the United States. [131] In the past 30 years the game has grown in popularity among female athletes, and, according to the IRB, is now played in over 100 countries. [87][101] In 1934, instigated by the French Rugby Federation, FIRA (Fédération Internationale de Rugby Amateur) was formed to organise rugby union outside the authority of the IRB. Both rugby union and rugby league have their origins in the style of football played at Rugby School in England. [100], The spread of rugby union in Europe has been sporadic. [27], Rugby union was an amateur sport until the IRB declared the game ‘open’ in 1995, removing restrictions on payments to players. In 2006 a new system was introduced where each nation plays the others three times, though in 2007 and 2011 the teams played each other only twice, as both were World Cup years. Rugby World Cup - RugbyRedefined.com will become your site , that is all RUGBY UNION , so bookmark us and thank you for your visit today , we hope to see you again tomorrow or even again today at our Facebook Page facebook.com/RugbyRedefined, Timeline of foundation of national rugby unions, North American and Caribbean Rugby Association, Fédération Internationale de Rugby Amateur – Association Européenne de Rugby, other games originating in English public schools, “Origins of Rugby – Codification “The innovation of running with the ball was introduced some time between 1820 and 1830.””, “I.O.C. [117] Bahrain founded its union a year later, while in 1975 the Dubai Sevens, the Gulf’s leading rugby tournament, was created by the Dubai Exiles Rugby Club. [175] For example, in the Encyclopedia Canadiana, the entry Rugby Football begins by referring to “the Canadian development of rugby union or “English rugger” introduced into Canada in the third quarter of the nineteenth century”, but later states that “the Canadian game is a radical departure from rugby union”. By 1880, Scotland, Ireland and Wales had followed suit and established their own Rugby unions. As a mainland country and during a period when they had been isolated by the British and Irish Unions, France became the only European team from the top tier to regularly play the other European countries; mainly Belgium, the Netherlands, Germany, Spain, Romania, Poland, Italy and Czechoslovakia. The Six Nations Championship in Europe and The Rugby Championship in the Southern Hemisphere (the latter replacing the Tri Nations) are major international competitions held annually.

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