He still, however, retained wide popular support. Brazil faced grave economic problems, including inflation and a growing national debt, as government expenditures consistently outran revenues. Vargas put pressure on the independence of Brazil’s three executive powers, as he closed down Congress, banned political parties, and imprisoned opponents. Subsequent investigations revealed that the president’s personal guard had hired the assassins and that corruption was widespread within the administration. Brazil: The Vargas era Getúlio Vargas , the losing candidate in the 1930 presidential election, led a revolt that placed him in power. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. Updates? Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. By 1922 he had risen rapidly in state politics and was elected to the National Congress, in which he served for four years. Vargas increasingly shifted the states’ political, economic, and social functions to the aegis of the national government. Vargas, formerly the governor of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, remained central to Brazilian national life for the next 24 years, holding office as chief… The following year Brazil promulgated a new constitution—the nation’s fifth and the fourth of the republican era—which included safeguards intended to prevent the rise of another overpowering president or dictator. His dramatic deathbed testament to the country led to a great resurgence of mass support, allowing for a rapid return of his followers to power. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. In 1934 a new constitution granted the central government greater authority and provided for universal suffrage. Author of. Under Vargas this system was destroyed. Getúlio Vargas voltou como presidente eleito na década de 1950, mas seu governo teve fim antes do período do mandato. ジェトゥリオ・ドルネレス・ヴァルガス（Getúlio Dornelles Vargas, 1882年4月19日 − 1954年8月24日）は、ブラジルの政治家。1930年から1945年までの間と、1951年から1954年までの間にブラジル大統領を務めた。愛称はGEGE（ジェジェ）。, 1882年にブラジル南部リオグランデ・ド・スル州のサン・ボルジャ（São Borja）で生まれた。ポルト・アレグレ法科大学卒業後に政界入りする。1911年3月にダルシー・リマ・サラマーニョと結婚した。政治家としては州議会議員、連邦議会議員を経て、1926年から1927年には大蔵大臣も務めた。, 1930年の大統領選挙で敗れるが、当時の政治腐敗などの不満を背景に、軍事クーデタを成功させて政権を掌握した。統一国家の建設を目標にサンパウロの反乱を鎮圧し、1934年に議会から認められて正式に大統領の座についた。中央集権的でファッショ色の強い新憲法を制定し、イデオロギーの国家統一を口実に共産党の反乱を鎮圧した。, 1937年、大統領選挙を目前とする中で、再び軍事行動によって選挙を中止させると、議会も解散させて独裁政治を行った（この時期をエスタード・ノーヴォ体制（新国家体制）とも称する）。新国家の樹立にも力を尽くした極右政党のインテグラリスタ党も解散させた。労働者の保護と規制による体制化、資源の国有化、有色移民の制限を規定した憲法によって、イタリアやドイツの全体主義に似た理念で自主外交の確立と統一国家の形成を目指した。やがて対アメリカ合衆国との協調路線を明らかにして、1944年にはイタリア戦線に派兵した。, ヴァルガスの独裁は第二次世界大戦中も続くが、終戦後の1945年10月末に軍事クーデタが起こり失脚した。しかし同じ年のうちに上院議員に選出された。, 1951年には、ヴァルガスはかつてのような軍事クーデタでなく、ブラジル史上初の民主的選挙によって大統領に就任した。その際、都市プロレタリアートや左翼からの支持を集めるため、その政治姿勢はかつてより左傾化しており、このために第二次ヴァルガス政権と、以降1964年までの諸政権の時代をポプリズモ時代と呼ぶ。彼の民族主義的、ポプリスタ的姿勢は都市労働者や中流階級を引きつけたが、戦後の好況期の終わりとともに支持も衰退した。, 政権末期は国民解放党（共産党）に接近した。1954年にはこれに反発を抱いたアメリカ合衆国から独裁政治を糾弾される。また、反大統領の姿勢をとるジャーナリスト暗殺計画などへの関与も疑われ、ヴァルガスへの退陣要求が強まった。こうした中、1954年8月25日にヴァルガスはピストル自殺を遂げた。, ブラジルを代表するミュージシャンであるエドゥ・ロボとシコ・ブアルキの共作曲である（Dr. On Nov. 10, 1937, Vargas presided over a coup d’état that set aside the constitutional government and set up the populist authoritarian Estado Novo (“New State”). Getúlio Vargas, the losing candidate in the 1930 presidential election, led a revolt that placed him in power. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Prior to 1930 the federal government had been in effect a federation of autonomous states, dominated by rural landholders and financed largely by the proceeds of agricultural exports. Getúlio Vargas, in full Getúlio Dorneles Vargas, (born April 19, 1882 [see Researchers Note], , São Borja, Braz.—died Aug. 24, 1954, Rio de Janeiro), president of Brazil (1930–45, 1951–54), who brought social and economic changes that helped modernize the country. He took office on Jan. 31, 1951. The new administration, known as the Estado Nôvo (“New State”), so heightened Vargas’s control that he was able to suppress all manifestations of popular will and strip Brazil of most of the trappings through which it might eventually hope to become a democracy. Getúlio Vargas assumiu o governo sob It limited the presidential term to five years, separated the three branches of government, and restricted federal intervention in the affairs of the states. After the outbreak of World War II in 1939, the Vargas government supported the U.S. policy of inter-American solidarity, and on August 22, 1942, it declared war against Germany and Italy. Vargas, however, did not change the private-enterprise system, nor did his social reforms extend in practice to the rural poor. From his position as state governor, Vargas campaigned unsuccessfully as reform candidate for the presidency of Brazil in 1930. A number of other parties were organized and entered elections through the 1950s and early ’60s, but few of them gained much influence. Although elected as senator from Rio Grande do Sul in December 1945, he went into semiretirement until 1950, when he emerged as the successful presidential candidate of the Brazilian Labour Party. In response, a group of army officers demanded Vargas’s resignation, and on August 24, 1954, he committed suicide in an apparent attempt to engender sympathy for his policies and his followers. The Brazilian armed forces significantly upgraded their equipment through the U.S. lend-lease program, and the two governments agreed to increase Brazil’s exports of raw materials. To counter these trends, Brazilians desired more rapid industrial development and measures to limit inflation and government spending. While appearing to accept defeat, Vargas in October of that year led the revolution, organized by his friends, that overthrew the oligarchical republic. Vargas, formerly the governor of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, remained central to Brazilian national life for the next 24 years, holding office as chief executive on two occasions, 1930–45 and 1951–54. Highlands, coastal regions, and the Pantanal, Regional, state, and local administration, Administrations of Costa e Silva, Médici, and Geisel. Corrections? As an elected president restrained by congress, a profusion of political parties, and public opinion, Vargas was unable to satisfy his labour following or to placate mounting middle-class opposition. A series of crises followed, reaching a climax on August 5, 1954, when assassins murdered an air force officer and attempted to kill Carlos Lacerda, the editor of an opposition newspaper. The former dictator was engulfed in a wave of antipathy. Lacking a firm majority in the Congress, he could neither enact his own programs nor resist the contradictory pressures of his supporters and opponents. …in the 1940s under President Getúlio Dorneles Vargas, who established the Social Democratic Party and the Brazilian Labour Party to buffer his weakening administration. During this time he survived a São Paulo-led revolt in 1932 and an attempted communist revolution in 1935. In addition, the states vied with the national government for political control, and the people of São Paulo staged a bloody, though unsuccessful, revolt. Omissions? Brazil’s air force helped defend the South Atlantic by flying antisubmarine patrols, and the United States used some Brazilian naval and air bases, including a major air field at Natal that provided the closest link between the Americas and Africa. He was dismissed as labour minister in 1954 because of his role (with the president’s acquiescence) in radically doubling the minimum wage, an action that contributed greatly to the inflationary spiral. Getúlio Vargas foi uma personalidade que até hoje é lembrada por seu nacionalismo, intervencionismo e populismo. João Goulart, Vargas’s young protégé and vice president of the Brazilian Labour Party (Partido Trabalhista Brasileiro; PTB), was accused of using his office to transform organized labour into a political machine loyal to Vargas. In 1926 Vargas became minister of finance in the Cabinet of President Washington Luís Pereira de Sousa, a post he retained until his election as governor of Rio Grande do Sul in 1928. Getúlio Vargas conseguiu destacar-se na cena política nacional e, por isso, a primeira fase de governo dele na chefia da República, entre os anos 1930 e 1945, ficou conhecida como Era Vargas. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. His greatest accomplishment was to guide Brazil as it weathered the far-reaching consequences of the Great Depression and the accompanying polarization between communism and fascism during his long tenure in office. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Getulio-Vargas, GlobalSecurity.org - The Era of Get�lio Vargas, 1930-1954, Getúlio Vargas - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). By mid-1954 criticism of the government was widespread, and the armed forces, professing shock over scandals within the regime, joined in the call for Vargas’s withdrawal. Three years later, following another uprising, President Vargas seized virtually absolute powers and set up still another constitution, under which he continued as president. He held sole power as provisional president from Nov. 3, 1930, until July 17, 1934, when he was elected president by the constituent assembly. The Vargas era Getúlio Vargas , the losing candidate in the 1930 presidential election, led a revolt that placed him in power. His own appointed governors were charged with appointing mayors A Era Vargas foi o período em que Getúlio Vargas foi o presidente do Brasil, começando em 1930, com um golpe, e durou até 1945. As the war drew to a close, some military officers believed that President Vargas might attempt to retain power, and on October 29, 1945, they staged a coup that forced him to resign. In 1953 the government intervened directly by creating a national petroleum corporation, Petrobrás. ジェトゥリオ・ドルネレス・ヴァルガス（ Getúlio Dornelles Vargas, 1882年 4月19日 − 1954年 8月24日）は、ブラジルの政治家。1930年から1945年までの間と、1951年から1954年までの間にブラジル大統領を務めた。愛称はGEGE Brazil sent an expeditionary force to Italy in July 1944 that distinguished itself in several battles. In 1938 he, along with members of his family and staff, personally resisted an attempt to overthrow his government by Brazilian fascists. Getulio）では、彼は国民から最も愛された首領で、革命が成功してからずっと自由主義のリーダーを務め、資本家と闘い高い国際的利益をもたらしたと讃えている。この曲はシモーネによってカヴァーされた。, BBC On This Day 24 August - 1954: Brazilian president found dead, https://ja.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=ジェトゥリオ・ドルネレス・ヴァルガス&oldid=78056300. Foi forçado a renunciar à presidência após um ultimato dos militares. In 1908, shortly after graduating from the Porto Alegre Law School, he entered politics. Brazil then experimented with democracy. Contemplating a military career, he joined the army when he was 16 but soon decided to study law. Vargas, formerly the governor of the state of Rio Grande do Sul , remained central to Brazilian national life for the next 24 years, holding office as chief executive on two occasions, 1930–45 and 1951–54. Accordingly, he was again installed in the presidency on January 31, 1951, in spite of the serious apprehensions of the military leaders who had deposed him in 1945. Emeritus Professor of History, University of California, Davis. Vargas was born in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, into a family prominent in state politics. However, he also diversified the agricultural sector, enacted social legislation that benefited the working class, and urged further industrialization through import-substitution (using protective tariffs and other policies to limit imports while encouraging domestic manufacturing).
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