Several New Deal programs provided direct relief to Colorado residents in the form of provisions and clothing, while others assisted in long-term economic recovery. Analysis of historical climate records revealed that during extreme drought years, the proportion of annual precipitation that occurs during cooler months increases. But the other driving force behind the plumes of dust that ravaged the landscape was the conversion of prairie to agricultural fields on a massive scale—between 1925 and the early 1930s, farmers converted 5.2 million acres of grassland over to farming, reported Sarah Zielinski for Smithsonian magazine in 2012. designed research; R.J.G.-N., L.E.B., C.J.W.C., J.E.G., A.M.H., A.K.P., and I.J.S. Ça n’est qu’au bout de quelques années qu’on s’est rendu compte que c’était une très grave erreur. Il est disponible sur itunes (https://itunes.apple.com/us/tv-season/ken-burns-the-dust-bowl/id566368963) et en DVD (http://www.shoppbs.org/family/index.jsp?categoryId=12975260&utm_source=PBS&utm_medium=Link&utm_campaign=pbs_content_kenburns_dustbowl_buydvdmodule), J’en profite pour signaler un livre sorti peu de temps avant cet article, intitulé « Les faiseurs de pluie. En bref : l’agriculture intensive érode les sols. Dust covered roads and made them impassable, suffocated livestock, destroyed crops, and laid ruin to the livelihoods of thousands of eastern Coloradans. To safely and ethically restart more of the human research portfolio, institutions must develop an explicit plan for managing human research during the pandemic. (Boulder: University Press of Colorado, 2005). Amplification of the North American “Dust Bowl” drought through human-induced land degradation, The enduring impact of the American Dust Bowl: Short and long-run adjustments to environmental catastrophe, What we learned from the Dust Bowl: Lessons in science, policy, and adaptation, Small farms, externalities, and the Dust Bowl of the 1930s, Pan-continental droughts in North America over the last millennium, Unprecedented 21st century drought risk in the American Southwest and central plains, Increasing drought under global warming in observations and models, Effects on the great drought on the prairies of Iowa, Nebraska, and Kansas, Replacement of true prairie by mixed prairie in eastern Nebraska and Kansas, Competition of western wheat grass with relict vegetation of prairie, Field measurements of photosynthesis, water-use efficiency, and growth in, Carbon dioxide starvation, the development of C, Global vegetation change through the Miocene/Pliocene boundary, Climate, phylogeny and the ecological distribution of C, Climatic patterns and the distribution of C, Improving our understanding of environmental controls on the distribution of C, Relative abundance of plant functional types in grasslands and shrublands of North America, Drought effects on above- and belowground production of a grazed temperate grassland ecosystem, Differential sensitivity to regional-scale drought in six central US grasslands, Contrasting above- and belowground sensitivity of three Great Plains grasslands to altered rainfall regimes, Drought and grazing: I. Le Dust Bowl (« bassin de poussière ») est une région à cheval sur l' Oklahoma, le Kansas et le Texas, touchée dans les années 1930 par la sécheresse et une série de tempêtes de poussière provoquant une catastrophe écologique et agricole. Portail de ressources électroniques en sciences humaines et sociales, https://itunes.apple.com/us/tv-season/ken-burns-the-dust-bowl/id566368963, http://www.shoppbs.org/family/index.jsp?categoryId=12975260&utm_source=PBS&utm_medium=Link&utm_campaign=pbs_content_kenburns_dustbowl_buydvdmodule, http://dhvs.u-strasbg.fr/Faiseursdepluie/, http://www.agriculture-de-conservation.com, En savoir plus sur comment les données de vos commentaires sont utilisées, Ce carnet dans le catalogue d'OpenEdition. This question is for testing whether or not you are a human visitor and to prevent automated spam submissions. A drought of that length raises the specter of the 1930s Dust Bowl, in which more than 20 million hectares of farmland lost soil to airborne dust. Donald Worster, Dust Bowl: The Southern Plains in the 1930s (New York: Oxford University Press, 1979). A dust storm bears down on the town of Burlington in Kit Carson, County, enveloping everything in its path. Relief figures indicate that almost all of Baca County’s residents benefited from New Deal programs. C’est alors que plusieurs facteurs vont alors changer le cours de l’Histoire, comme l’explique Ken Burns. The Dust Bowl got its name after Black Sunday, April 14, 1935. Under the LUP, the federal government purchased more than 4.7 million acres of submarginal farmland in Baca, Otero, and Las Animas counties in Colorado and throughout the West. Contact your library if you do not have a username and password. Grass species adapted to high temperatures with higher water use efficiency (C4 grasses) decreased, while those preferring cooler climates (C3 grasses) increased. Towns had to turn on their streetlights during the day and the ubiquitous dust forced people to put wet sheets over doors and windows. Ironically, much of the grassland that was converted to agriculture in recent years was not for food but for corn destined to become fodder for biofuels intended to reduce reliance on fossil fuels, Lambert tells Science. This article contains supporting information online at https://www.pnas.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.1073/pnas.1922030117/-/DCSupplemental. As a dusty gloom spread over the nation's capital and blotted out the sun, Bennett explained, "This, gentlemen, is what I have been talking about." Dust Bowl, écologie, gouvernement (Etats-Unis 1930-1940) », par C. Masutti. The promise of free land and above-average rainfall in the 1870s encouraged the rapid settlement of the Great Plains. Unsustainable farming practices and widespread drought transformed the once fertile Great Plains into a barren landscape, inhospitable to both humans and animals. The federal government sent employees from the Civilian Conservation Corps and the Soil Conservation Service (SCS) to eradicate the pests by poisoning them. Dust suffocated livestock and caused … Vote Now! This shift in precipitation seasonality provides a mechanism for C3 grasses to respond positively to multiyear drought, resolving the Dust Bowl paradox. We do not capture any email address. Grass species adapted to high temperatures with higher water use efficiency (C4 grasses) decreased, while those preferring cooler climates (C3 grasses) increased. The LUP purchased submarginal and eroded lands, restored them, and converted them to grazing, forestry, wildlife, or recreation areas. Winds were clocked at 60 mph. Las Animas and Prowers counties were … In 1932, 14 dust storms were recorded on the Plains. À compter de 1934, selon un autre documentaire de PBS, les résidents savent d’où vient la tempête en fonction de la couleur des nuages : noire pour le Kansas, rouge pour l’Oklahoma, grise si les vents ont ramassé la poussière au Colorado ou au Nouveau Mexique. The destructive storms earned the decade the moniker the “dirty thirties.” The storms destroyed millions of farmland acres and induced mental and physical anguish among residents. Copyright © 2020 National Academy of Sciences. pourquoi le Sars-CoV-2 est-il si infectieux ? “Those would be the ingredients for another Dust Bowl.”. By April 1935, there had been weeks of dust storms, but the cloud that appeared on the horizon that Sunday was the worst. Data deposition: The data reported in this paper are available in Dryad (https://datadryad.org/stash/dataset/doi:10.5061/dryad.3j9kd51dv). Edited by Sarah E. Hobbie, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN, and approved July 14, 2020 (received for review December 16, 2019). Cette technique s’appelle le non-labour et semi-direct sous couvert (NL, SDSC). In 1933, there were 38 storms. Sans se rendre compte qu’ils sont en train de préparer le prochain désastre. Dust Bowl (deutsch Staubschüssel) wurden in der Zeit der Weltwirtschaftskrise (Great Depression) in den USA und Kanada Teile der Großen Ebenen (Great Plains) genannt, die in den 1930er Jahren – besonders in den Jahren 1935 bis 1938 – von verheerenden Staubstürmen betroffen waren. Lutte biologique contre les organismes nuisibles à l'agriculture, Interview 4/5 : la prévention, une nouvelle arme contre les dechets, Éolienne : de l’électricité verte grâce à l’arbre à vent, Lire la suite : Définition | Séquestration artificielle du CO2 | Futura Planète. La solution, on la connait maintenant : ne pas labourer, toujours laisser le sol couvert (pour le protéger du soleil et du vent) et pratiquer la rotation des cultures en fonction du type de sol. You may purchase access to this article. Quel est le principe de l'agriculture naturelle ? Mais la conclusion de Burns, 4 heures plus tard, est affligeante. Resolving the Dust Bowl paradox of grassland responses to extreme drought. Ce site utilise Akismet pour réduire les indésirables. By 1934, it was estimated that 100 million acres of farmland had lost all or most of the topsoil to the winds. Improved irrigation, reservoirs and groundwater can stave off disaster for about five years, Smith says. Las Animas and Prowers counties were especially hard hit. Alex Fox is a freelance science journalist based in Washington, D.C. This previously unidentified shift in seasonal precipitation patterns during extreme drought years provides a mechanism for C3 grasses to increase despite overall hot, dry conditions. (Département de l’agriculture – Domaine public). The ‘Black Sunday’ Dust Storm of 14 April 1935, Eighty Years Ago This Week Dust Bowl Storm Wreaks Havoc on Colorado Plains. Des arbres ont été plantés, en bocage, pour éviter que la terre ne soit léchée par les vents et réduire l’impact des tempêtes de sable. ed. At first, this … It is becoming Real.". But the need for speed shouldn’t come at the expense of methodological rigor. Hardy prairie grasses would have likely withstood the drought, but crops covering the newly converted tracts swiftly bit the proverbial dust, which loosened the grip their roots had on the soil. Dust storm in Hooker, Oklahoma, June 4, 1937. Credit: Research Division of the Oklahoma Historical Society. In the 1930s, the Dust Bowl was caused by years of severe drought and featured dust storms up to 1,000 miles long. Congress passed the Soil Conservation Act that same year. Although Baca County experienced the brunt of the Dust Bowl, dust storms occurred as far north as Burlington in Kit Carson County and Julesburg in Sedgwick County. For instance, in 1930 Baca County had 237,000 acres in wheat production; by 1936 that number had fallen to 150 acres. Part of what allowed Lambert and his colleagues to tie the added dust in the sky to agriculture were clear regional upticks when and where major crops such as corn and soybeans were planted and harvested, per the statement. The federal government allocated $1,064,021 to the WPA for public construction projects in Baca County, including the improvement or construction of roads, bridges, schools, and other public and municipal buildings. The researchers found that levels of atmospheric dust swirling above the Great Plains region doubled between 2000 and 2018. Il y a une site web: http://dhvs.u-strasbg.fr/Faiseursdepluie/. "The impact is like a shovelful of fine sand flung against the face," Avis D. Carlson wrote in a New Republic article. With nearly half the country currently in drought and a winter forecast predicting continued dry weather for many of the afflicted regions, dust storms could become an even bigger threat. A dust storm arrived in Washington all the way from the Great Plains. This widespread increase in C3 grasses during a decade of low rainfall and high temperatures is inconsistent with well-known traits of C3 vs. C4 pathways. Cars come to a standstill, for no light in the world can penetrate that swirling murk... We live with the dust, eat it, sleep with it, watch it strip us of possessions and the hope of possessions.
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